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Discipline: Sociology

Type of Paper: Coursework

Academic Level: High school

Paper Format: APA

Pages: 1 Words: 275

Question

I will upload another article with a question but the student haven't uploaded it yet. The article is based on the international human organ trafficking, and the information is based on synthesis media reviews and personal literatures. The article starts of explaining how big the market is for organ transplants; kidney and heart transplants are the most popular ones. The methods and resources used to complete this article were 1. Interviews, 2. Written official materials, and 3. Professional journal articles. The article aims to explain how individuals and groups of people have committed crimes and gone against the government’s human organ transplant laws.

There were a lot of questions about the consent of transplanting organs from a dead or living body. Also the role family members have in giving consent after the person has passed away. Another big discussion about organ transplant was the compensation to the donor and/or family of the donor. Looking closely at it the donors and family of the donors do not end up gaining much from the donation of their organ. However, there was legislation put in place that has been practiced by most advanced society and it was that “the removal of an organ from a living or deceased person for transplant purposes must be free and altruistic act of generosity” (p.139). Because of this principle is why most western countries, including the United States has criminalized the act of selling and buying organs for transplant.

The United Network for Organ Sharing, also known as UNOS, is responsible for keeping track and records of the national organ waitlist in the United States. They shared that there was an average of eight people died each day in 1993 while they were waiting for an organ. In 1994 the UNOS waitlist had 36,039 people on the waiting list and by 1996 the wait list was at 44,311, it was more than a 20% increase. During these years there was more than enough potential donors to supply organs for transplants but people were not convinced it was the right thing for them to do. Transplants cannot happen without the approval of next of kin and/or family member.

The number on the waiting list could have doubled over the years, but it also had to do with the amount of organs available for transplant. However, the system in the United States that had to do with consent was failing at supplying the organs needed for transplant, so the American Medical Association’s Council stepped in. They wanted changes in the laws that would increase the number of motivated people to donate their organs. Then the new law was put in place for people to a decision about being an organ donor when they went renew their drivers’ license, when they would register to vote, and they would go to complete their tax returns. Yes, there was an increase in the people that signed up to be organ donors, however, their family members were still able to go against it and vetoing the decision.

The United States had a solution for the shortage there was internationally of organs. Their solution was to revoke the laws put in place for the selling and buying of organs in the free market. It was suggested that incentives would have been given to the person or the family of the deceased. However, it was argued that if this was put in place, the donations would not be a complete act of generosity.

While the dispute kept going about how to increase the amount of organ donations, there were a lot of factors in place that was encouraging individuals and groups to violate the national transplant laws; there were seven main factors. In addition, organ trafficking was and still is not as simple as trafficking illegal drugs for example. Medical tourist from Europe and the Middle East would travel to purchase organs because in India organ were able to be sold legal and illegally. While other countries would travel to China where they were able to buy organs from executed prisoners, and that was a very controversial topic. There was a lot of political and economic complicity. In addition, there was a lot of evidence pointing to the fact that the government in China were very involved in those transaction and the profits. Other countries like India, indirectly profit from the revenues. There were many doctors that supported the voluntary sale of organs by people donating while they were alive, and this happened openly within “medical framework oversight and legal regulations” (p. 148). There were a lot of people that would travel from the United States to one of these countries for transplant when they wouldn’t see another solution.

In conclusion, it is understood that countries in Asia, like China, Japan and India, their government were and are involved in the business of trafficking of human organs. It is a white collar crime in these countries. Individuals from the United States and other Western countries travel to these countries to either sell or buy organs for transplant because it is much easier to do than the United States.



Questions:

What are the criminogenic factors inherited in the organ transplant area that encouraged the involved parties to violate national transplant laws?
What is one way countries from Latin America are getting organs from people?
What did you learn from this article?
What was the controversy in Japan?
Reference-

Foster, T.W. (1997). Trafficking in human organs: an emerging form of white-collar crime? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 41(2), 139-150.