I will be uploading the rest of the questions by Wednesday. One per article please

Discipline: Sociology

Type of Paper: Coursework

Academic Level: High school

Paper Format: APA

Pages: 2 Words: 550


Answer the questions please
Article: Samarasinghe, V., & Burton, B. (2007). Strategizing prevention: A critical review of local initiatives to prevent female sex trafficking.
In the article, Samarasinghe and Burton explain the different procedures non profits alongside community based organizations do to prevent female and child sex trafficking around the world. They begin to explain the definition of female sex trafficking and slowly transform into explaining the initiatives and plans the government and non profits conduct in order to avoid global sex trafficking. The authors go on to explain the menacing consequences from a victims point of view showcasing the exploitation of young women across borders recruiting them to an illegal trade and also forcibly make them become undocumented migrants with no legal rights in the country they are trafficked in. The authors stated that 600,000 and 800,000 people are being trafficked globally per year, 70 percent being females and 50 percent are children. Almost every country involves human trafficking the average profits per sex worker are estimated at $45,000 in the Middle East, $18,200 in Latin America and in Asia and Africa $10,000. With that being said sex trafficking is considered to be a very lucrative business which explains why there is so many people being trafficked a year, constant increasing demand in the sex industry.

However, with the high levels of sexual exploitation occurring over the past few decades non profits, policy makers and international organizations have demanded to shift their attention to this pressing issue. The United Nations has passed treaties to initiate anti trafficking forums such as the CEDAW and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. In this article, the authors focus more on preventative strategies rather than the after math of when the trafficking actually occurs. All in all, all aspects used to stop trafficking are very important and should all be accounted for when faced with such issues. Non profits and community based programs have done a great deal on preventive measures when it comes to low socioeconomic communities. Authors stated the lack of awareness of human sex trafficking in poor regions who are the communities that tend to be more at risk than any other community can be one of the causes of why females and children are being trafficked so easily because they are not aware of the strategic ways of how human traffickers prey on their victims. Yet, it is not to say that young educated girls are not being trafficked at all.

The International Organization of Migration took many anti trafficking actions in order to raise awareness. The IOM main purpose was to raise awareness especially in at risk communities. The IOM developed multiple media initiatives in different parts of the work by showcasing tv programs that brought attention to human trafficking issues. Campaign commercials were produced to spread awareness to the matter and to help those that are at risk. The media played a huge part in spreading awareness on human trafficking exemplifying the different ways that recruiters may trick you into involving you in a certain type of work that is completely different from what you intended the job was. In Nepal, non profits took a more personal approach to things and brought in high school students as volunteers and taught them preventative measures and had them go out to other at risk villages to go and teach their peers the same preventative measures that they were taught. A lot of Non profits goals was to gain public awareness to human trafficking and how dangerous and common it really is. Therefore, many movies were produced that involved human trafficking and were advertised. The main goal of all strategies mentioned were to really get on a personal level with viewers and showcase how easy it is to be involved in a situation. The expectations of all projects were to make it clear to young girls the importance of being aware of human trafficking and how it is not right for humans to be trafficked for the exchange of sex and money.

In conclusion, every initiative to prevent such pressing issues should always have a goal in mind such like many NGO's mentioned in the article had a common goal in spreading awareness to young individuals that can be targets to human trafficking recruiters and also be able to see results from such measures taken place. However, NGO's do not only focus on preventative measures they are also involved in the process of the aftermath. They are involved in getting the victims a safe place to be in and also involve litigation departments that help victims seek justice. However, it is very hard to determine many cases due to some cases victims do not necessarily consider themselves victims moreso they see themselves as trying to help provide for themselves/families due to the circumstances they are forced to live in. To sum up, it is very hard to attack such a contradicting topic that has so many obstacles to it. It is hard to universally have a universal law that bans such practices when economic, social, cultural and political across borders are so different.

In the article, the authors mention the UN enacting treaties to prevent human trafficking. What were the treaties mentioned? Do you believe that more treaties should be created in order to prevent human trafficking?
In the article, NGO's are mentioned a lot on their roles of preventing human trafficking. What were some of the roles mentioned in the article that NGO's took to prevent human trafficking?
The authors mentioned three mutually complementary thematic categories of preventative initiative. Which one out of the three do you believe to be more effective?
Zhang, S. Chin, K. L. (2002). Enter the dragon. Inside Chinese human smuggling organizations
Sheldon Zhang and Ko-Lin Chin attempt to explore the workings of Chinese human smuggling despite the limited research available. It is known that the root cause of this organized crime began when formal ties between the United States and the People’s Republic of China were established in which then continued to allow immigration from China to the United states. Since 1978 the influx in Chinese immigration combined with limited immigration quotas has forced Chinese citizens to find alternative methods of entering the United States, eventually developing into Chinese human smuggling (Zhang & Chin, 2002, p. 738). A wide range of data from different sources has estimated that more than half-million Chinese citizens have been smuggled since 1984 or anywhere between 50,000-10,000 enter the United States each year (Zhang & Chin, 2002,p.739). Chinese smugglers have used three major strategies, 1.Enter Mexico or Canada and then illegally cross the borders into the United States 2. Flying into the United States directly or using transit points outside China 3. Smuggled into the United States in fishing trawlers or freighters (Zhang & Chin, 2002,p.738).

Much of the information we know today has come from interviews with smuggled Chinese immigrants. The lack of research in this particular criminal enterprise has left law enforcement agencies to use traditional views of structures in organized crime, hierarchically structured with a division of labor, like that of drug cartels and the view of the “enterprise model”, flexible and adaptive networks that expand and contact at their own will (Zhang & Chin, 2002,p740). Limited information pushes to assume that there is a connection between the human smugglers and traditional Chinese crime groups (e.i, Triads). The smuggled immigrants have revealed that smugglers are either “big snakeheads”, overseers and investors in smuggling operations or “little snakeheads”, middle men or recruiters (Zhang & Chin, 2002,p.741).

For the purposes of this article the authors were able to obtain a majority of their data from sources directly connected in organizing and transporting Chinese citizens illegally into the United States (Zhang & Chin, 2002,p.742). A very helpful familiar tool used to obtain this information was through the cultural practice of guanxi, the same method human smuggling is built upon (Zhang & Chin, 2002,p.744). Based on data collected from New York, Los Angeles and Fuzhou, China it was found that smugglers had no connections to traditional organized crime groups but rather individuals of a wide range of backgrounds (Zhang & Chin, 2002,p. 745). On the contrary, a majority of these private citizens did not want involvement with these groups but would rather make use of their resources in the form of guanxi (Zhang & Chin, 2002,p.748). Sources also confirmed these individuals to be either the “big snakeheads” or “little snakeheads”. However, that did not mean one had power over the other.

Overall there seemed to be no structure that exactly matched either of the traditional views of hierarchical order or expandable networks, but rather one of a “task force” based on shared commitments, cooperation and resources similar to that of a business. Tasks were seen to be categorized into the recruiters, coordinators, transporters, document vendors, corrupt public officials, guides and crew members, enforcers and debt collectors (Zhang & Chin, 2002,pp.750-753). The business aspect that connected tasks involved verbal agreements, rare violence or intimidation, self-preservation through secrecy and a cautious conservative approach, relevant corruption methods, and temporary business alliances.

The characteristics of the smugglers and their organizations discovered to be quite different then what was assumed. The authors point out that it should not be ruled out that some information could possibly be untrue in some ways. However, the similar information collected by many subjects during the many interviews seemed to prove closer to being reliable (Zhang & Chin, 2002,p.744).


Zhang, S., & Chin, K.-L. (2002). Enter The Dragon: Inside Chinese Human Smuggling Organizations. Criminology, 40(4), 737–766.


1. According to the authors new research which view on structured organized crime best resembles Chinese human smuggling?

2. What are the demographics of the Chinese smugglers?

3.Why was the practice of guanxi vital in both obtaining the data and running a Chinese human smuggling operation?